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Bladder Cancer

Cancer Type

What is Bladder Cancer?

When the cells in the bladder proliferate uncontrollably, bladder cancer results. A tumor develops as the cell count rises, and it eventually spreads to other body parts. Although the exact cause is unknown, pertinent risk factors include chemical exposure, family history, and genetic alterations brought on by tobacco use. Urothelium cells, which line the inside of your bladder, are typically where bladder cancer begins. Urothelial cells are also found in your kidneys and the tubes (ureters) that carry blood from the kidneys to the bladder. Urothelial carcinoma is much more common in the bladder than it is in the kidneys or ureters, though it can occur in both.

Most bladder cancers are discovered early on, when they are highly treatable. However, even bladder tumors in their early stages may return after treatment. Therefore, in order to monitor for recurrence, patients with bladder cancer may need to undergo follow-up testing for years after treatment.

With the assistance of a group of exceptionally talented reconstructive surgeons and the most recent advancements in cancer treatment technologies, our oncologists and onco-surgeons treat every patient, adult and pediatric, comprehensively and using a multidisciplinary approach to treat all kinds and forms of cancer.


There are three main forms of bladder cancer:

It's a kind of cancer that affects the bladder lining. About 90% of cases of bladder cancer are of urothelial carcinoma, or UCC. This is the most common type of bladder cancer. Additionally, 10% to 15% of all kidney cancers detected in adults are related to it. Everything begins in the urothelial cells of the urinary tract. Urothelial cancer is also known as transitional cell carcinoma, or TCC.

Squamous cell carcinoma has been associated with chronic irritation of the bladder, as a result of an infection or long-term use of a urinary catheter. It is more prevalent in regions of the world where bladder infections are frequently caused by the parasitic infection schistosomiasis.

Adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that originates from cells found in the bladder's mucus-secreting glands. A rare kind of cancer is bladder adenocarcinoma.


The most common symptom of bladder cancer is urinary issues. Urine with blood in it is one of the first symptoms. Its color could be dark red, pink, or orange. You may need to see a doctor immediately if you experience any of the following signs and symptoms:

  • Cloudy or Bloody Urine (Hematuria)
  • Frequent Urge to Urinate
  • Frequent Urination
  • Burning sensation or Pain (while passing urine)

These symptoms could be brought on by a urinary tract infection (UTI), bladder stones, an overactive bladder, or prostate inflammation. It's imperative that your symptoms be assessed in any event.

There are more symptoms to lookout for if the cancer has spread:

  • Backache
  • Unexplained Weight Loss
  • Painful Bones
  • Extreme Exhaustion
  • Swollen Feet
  • Loss of Appetite
  • Reduced Urine Output


Bladder cancer is one of the most common types of cancer. It mainly affects older people, though it can affect anyone at any age, and it is more common in men than in women. Bladder cancer arises from abnormal cell growth and division in the bladder. Cells that possess mutations that permit unchecked growth and division without apoptosis give rise to tumors. However, you can research the causes and make an effort to avoid them if at all possible.

  • Infections of Parasitic Nature
  • Exposure to Harmful Chemicals
  • Exposure to Radiation
  • Congenital Bladder Abnormalities
  • Chronic Irritation in Bladder Lining

Other Risk Factors

  • Smoking: When you smoke cigarettes, cigars, or pipes, dangerous substances can build up in your urine. These noxious compounds can harm the bladder lining, increasing the risk of cancer.
  • Age: The risk of bladder cancer rises with age. Although it is uncommon in those under the age of 40, it can happen at any age.
  • Gender: Bladder cancer is more common in men than it is in women.
  • Family History: If a person has had bladder cancer before, it is quite likely that they will develop it again. If a first-degree family, such as a parent, sibling, or child, has had bladder cancer, the risk of acquiring bladder cancer is enhanced.
  • Personal History: Persistent urine infections as a result of using the urinary catheter on a regular basis may raise the chance of developing squamous cell bladder cancer. This is also associated with schistosomiasis, a parasitic urine illness.


Bladder cancer staging is determined by how far the cancer has spread through the bladder’s tissues, if the cancer has spread to neighboring lymph nodes, and whether the disease has spread to nearby organs and distant places.

  • Stage 0: There are extremely early, high grade cancer cells exclusively in the inner layer of the bladder lining (stage 0a) or R the cancer is in the genesis of its site in the inner layer of the bladder lining (stage 0is).
  • Stage I: The cancer has begun to penetrate the connective tissue beneath the bladder lining in stage one.
  • Stage II: The cancer has spread to the bladder wall muscle through the connective tissue layer.
  • Stage III: The disease has spread to the fat layer beneath the muscle and may have spread to the prostate, womb, vaginal area, or lymph nodes.
  • Stage IV: The cancer has spread to the abdominal wall (abdomen) or the area between the hips (pelvis), as well as to other sections of the body such as the bones, lungs, or liver.


It is important to look into anyone displaying symptoms and indicators of bladder cancer. Examining the pelvic organs, particularly if the patient is older than forty, includes the kidneys, bladder, and urethra. This evaluation includes a kidney and ureter imaging test, a cystourethroscopy, and one or more urine tests.

The following tests and methods are used to diagnose adrenal cancer:

  • Blood & Urine Tests : Tests on the blood and urine can reveal abnormal levels of hormones produced by the adrenal glands, including cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens.
  • Imaging Tests : Your doctor may order CT, MRI, or PET scans to help you understand any growths on your adrenal glands and to check if the cancer has spread to other areas of your body like your liver or lungs.
  • Lab Analysis : The lab will examine your adrenal gland. Your doctor might recommend the removal of the affected adrenal gland if they think you have adrenal cancer. The gland is examined in a lab by a physician who specializes in studying body tissues (pathologist). You can find out which cells are involved in your cancer and whether you have it or not with this test.


The most typical method of treating adrenal cancer is to remove the entire tumor surgically. To prevent the cancer from coming back, alternative treatments may be used if surgery is not an option.