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Cervical Cancer

Cancer Type

What is Cervical Cancer?

  • Chemotherapy: The goal of chemotherapy is to kill cancer cells with drugs. It stops these cells from proliferating and prevents the tumours from getting bigger.
  • Another treatment option for tumours that test positive for either progesterone or oestrogen receptors is hormone therapy, also known as endocrine therapy. Oestrogen has an impact on these kinds of tumours.
  • Targeted Therapy : Unlike chemotherapy, this type of treatment is extremely focused. Using medications that target the genetic coding of cancer cells and suppress them, this type of treatment stops the growth and spread of cancer cells.
  • Getting vaccinated against HPV infection and undergoing screening tests can help prevent cervical cancer.

Asarfi oncology department excels at offering top-notch cancer treatment because of their combined more than 30 years of clinical excellence. Our oncologists and onco-surgeons treat all types and forms of cancer using a multidisciplinary approach. They are assisted by a team of highly skilled reconstructive surgeons who treat all of our patients, both adults and children, with extensive care, as well as by the newest cancer treatment technologies.


The two most prevalent types of cervical cancer are adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Under a microscope, the appearance of cells differentiates each.

Carcinomas with Squamous Cells

Cells that are thin and flat and border the bottom of the cervix are the source of squamous cell carcinoma. This type of cancer accounts for about 90% of cervical cancer cases.


The glandular cells that border the upper portion of the cervix are where cervical adenocarcinomas develop. The majority of cervical cancer cases that remain are caused by cervical adenocarcinomas.

Different Types

  • A Glassy Cell Cancer
  • Glassy cell carcinomas are a subtype of adenosquamous carcinomas.
  • Carcinomas of the Adenosquamous
  • Adenosquamous carcinomas arise when cervical cancer involves both types of cells. The various definitions of the cancer types that fall into this category make it challenging to ascertain their prevalence.
  • There are other cancers that can develop in the cervix, but squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas account for almost all cervical malignancies. Among the other cancers are lymphoma, sarcoma, and melanoma.


It is possible to identify signals of cervical cancer early on, even though some women do not exhibit symptoms until the disease has advanced. Here are a few of them:

  • Vaginal Bleeding : Vaginal bleeding that resembles menstrual bleeding may be caused by cervical cancer. The patient may experience spotting or bleeding in between periods, as well as a longer or heavier menstrual cycle. Reporting any bleeding that seems out of the ordinary to a physician is advised. Any bleeding that occurs after menopause is included in this, particularly if the patient hasn't had a period in months or years.
  • Pelvic Pain : There are several reasons why women may experience pain in the pelvic area. Back pain, especially lower back pain, affects certain people. This could be anywhere in the lower abdomen, below the belly button, and it could feel like a sharp pain or pressure.
  • Vaginal Discharge : A clear, milky, or slightly yellowish-colored vaginal discharge is normal and healthy. On the other hand, changes in colour, consistency, and/or odour should be investigated. A discharge that may be indicative of cervical cancer may appear reddish due to minute amounts of blood present in it. Before or after their menstrual cycle, women should be alert for a reddish-tinged discharge and/or an increase in the volume of discharge.
  • Pain During Sexual Activity : Some people experience pain or bleeding either during or after sexual activity.


The DNA of healthy cells in the cervix changes (mutates), which is what causes cervical cancer. A cell's instructions for what to do are encoded in its DNA.

Healthy cells divide and grow at a set pace, then expire after a set amount of time. The cells multiply and replicate uncontrollably as a result of the mutations, but they do not die. A bulk, or tumour, is formed by the accumulating aberrant cells. Beyond a tumour, cancer cells have the ability to invade nearby tissues and proliferate, or spread (metastasize), to other areas of the body.

Extra Risk Elements

Human Papillomavirus: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the primary risk factor for cervical cancer. The HPV virus family is made up of more than 150 distinct viruses. Some of them produce papillomas, a type of growth that is more commonly referred to as warts.

Smoking: Women who smoke have a twofold higher risk of developing cervical cancer compared to non-smokers. Tobacco byproducts have been detected in the cervical mucus of women smokers.

Other Risk Factors

  • Human Papillomavirus : The most major risk factor for cervical cancer is infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is a virus family that includes over 150 different viruses. Some of them create papillomas, more popularly known as warts, which are a form of growth.
  • Smoking : Cervical cancer is twice as common in women who smoke as in women who do not smoke. Women who smoke have been found to have tobacco by-products in their cervical mucus.
  • Weak Immunity : The immune system helps to stop the growth and spread of cancer cells as well as to destroy them. Cervical pre-cancer may develop into invasive carcinoma in HIV-positive women more quickly than it would in healthy women.
  • Many Pregnancies : Women who have given birth to three or more full-term children are at a higher risk of developing cervical cancer. This is thought to be caused by the increased risk of HPV infection that comes with having sex.
  • Malnutrition : Women whose diets are lacking in fruits and vegetables may be at higher risk of developing cervical cancer.
  • Chlamydia Infection : Several studies have shown that women who have evidence of a chlamydia infection in their cervical mucus or blood are more likely to develop cervical cancer. Cervical cancer risk may rise as a result of the Chlamydia bacteria promoting HPV growth and survival in the cervix.


The stage of your cervical cancer is the most important factor in choosing your course of treatment. Based on the size and extent of the cancer's metastasis—the spread of the disease to other parts of the body, such as lymph nodes or other organs—cervical cancer is categorised into stages. There are four stages of cervical cancer:

  • Stage 0: This stage indicates the presence of abnormal cells in the innermost lining of the cervix, but they are not invasive—that is, they have not spread to neighbouring tissue. Although precancerous, these cells have the potential to disappear on their own or develop into cancer and spread to neighbouring normal tissue. Treatments are available to stop precancerous cells from proliferating and turning into cancer.
  • Stage I: Stages IA and IB are the two substages. Only the cervix is affected by the cancer at this point.
  • Stage II: This stage indicates that the cancer may have spread from the cervix to the vaginal canal or the tissue surrounding the uterus. As of right now, the pelvic wall—the tissues lining the area of the body between the hips—has not been affected by the cancer.
  • Stage III: At this point, the cancer has mostly taken over the vaginal wall and may have even extended to the tissues (pelvic wall) between the hips. Stage III may also indicate that renal function is being compromised by the cancer.
  • Stage VI: Malignancy that has spread from the cervix to the bladder, rectum, vulva or urethra, and other parts of the body like the lungs, liver, belly, or digestive system is categorised as Stage VI.


Getting a thorough and accurate cancer diagnosis is the first step in developing a treatment plan for cervical cancer. Our comprehensive team of cervical cancer specialists will use a range of cutting-edge tests and procedures to identify cervical cancer, assess the disease, and create a personalised treatment plan for you.

  • Pap Smear: A number of screening techniques can be used to detect cervical cancer, which is not the case with other gynecologic cancers. The most widely used screening procedure for precancerous cells (dysplasia) and cervical cancer is the Pap test.
  • Pelvic Examination: A physician looks for lumps or bumps that can be further examined with imaging technology by physically examining the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and rectum.
  • Biopsy: Two types of biopsies are used to diagnose cervical cancer: sentinel lymph node biopsy and cone biopsy/LEEP.
  • Colonoscopy: Using a specialised microscope known as a colposcope, a physician examines the cervix. The purpose of the colposcope is to give your doctor a clearer picture of the areas so they can identify any abnormal tissue. If abnormal tissue is discovered, the tissue is biopsied.


Among the medical professionals who might be involved in treatment and care are nurses, social workers, counsellors, chemists, and nutritionists. The cancer care team creates a personalised treatment plan for the patient based on all the data gathered from tests, scans, and other procedures regarding the patient's cancer.

  • Surgery : The majority of patients with cervical cancer are treated with surgery, and there are a few different types of surgery that can be used.
  • Radiation Therapy: Using state-of-the-art machinery, our radiation oncologists target cancerous cells in the cervix with high doses of radiation while sparing healthy tissue. By concentrating the radiation directly on the tumour, these treatments are intended to reduce the risk of typical gastrointestinal and sexual function side effects associated with radiation therapy for cervical cancer.
  • Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is a type of cancer treatment in which drugs are used to either kill or stop the spread of cancerous cells. It is recommended that a significant portion of patients with cervical cancer take it. For women whose primary treatment is radiation therapy, chemotherapy may be added to the regimen to help with better responses.
  • Targeted Therapy: The goal of targeted therapy is to recognise and address the traits that set each cancer cell apart. Medication used in targeted therapy binds to proteins or receptors on cancer cells, either eliminating the cells or improving the efficiency of other treatments like chemotherapy. Among the drugs used in targeted therapy are angiogenesis inhibitors, which prevent cancer cells from growing blood vessels that supply tumours with nutrients.
    Immunotherapy is a type of cancer treatment in which chemicals produced in a laboratory or found in the body are used to strengthen the immune system or help it recognise and combat cancer cells.
    Depending on the stage at which your cancer is progressing, your oncologist may also recommend additional treatment procedures like pelvic exenteration, radical trachelectomy, hysterectomy, etc.