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Blood Cancer

Cancer Type

What is Blood Cancer?

Plasma and cells are transported throughout the body by blood. It removes waste from cells and gives cells and organs the chemicals they need, like oxygen, hormones, and carbohydrates. The soft, gel-like material called bone marrow is what fills the hollows in our bones with blood cells. The process of producing, developing, and differentiating blood cells is called hematopoiesis.

Your body contains three different kinds of blood cells:

  • White blood cells are part of your immune system and fight disease.
  • In addition to carrying carbon dioxide to your lungs for exhalation, red blood cells supply oxygen to your body's tissues and organs.
  • Your blood clot is helped by platelets when you are injured.
  • In humans, plasma accounts for roughly 55% of the blood volume. Water makes up 92% of plasma, with the remaining 8% consisting of the following:
    • vitamins
    • Sugar
    • hormones
    • Proteins
    • Salts of Minerals
    • Lipids

The remaining 45% of blood is composed of platelets, red blood cells, and white blood cells. Every one of them is essential to the blood's healthy operation. Blood cancer is not a single illness, but rather an umbrella term for a number of different types of malignancies. Blood cancers are, as the name suggests, tumours of the blood; any illness that interferes with the production or function of blood is categorised as blood cancer.

The oncology department at Asarfi excels at offering top-notch cancer treatment because of their combined more than 30 years of clinical excellence. Our oncologists and onco-surgeons treat all types and forms of cancer using a multidisciplinary approach. They are assisted by a team of highly skilled reconstructive surgeons who treat all of our patients, both adults and children, with extensive care, as well as by the newest cancer treatment technologies.


Among the most common forms of blood cancer are:

Blood cancer called leukaemia begins in the bone marrow and spreads to other parts of the body. It happens when the body creates an abnormally high quantity of white blood cells, which prevents the bone marrow from making red blood cells and platelets.

A blood cancer called Hodgkin lymphoma is caused by lymphocytes in the lymphatic system. One kind of abnormal lymphocyte is the Reed-Sternberg cell, which is seen in Hodgkin lymphoma.

This particular form of blood cancer starts in the lymphatic system from white blood cells called lymphocytes, which help the body fight infections.

Blood plasma cells, a subset of white blood cells made in the bone marrow, are where multiple myeloma, a type of blood cancer, begins.


The following are typical signs of blood cancer:

  • Fever
  • Persistent Fatigue
  • Unexplained Weakness
  • Loss of Appetite
  • Nausea
  • Night Sweats
  • Bone/Joint Pain
  • Shortness of Breath
  • Unexplained Weight Loss
  • Abdominal Pain/Discomfort
  • Headaches
  • Infections
  • Poor Blood Clotting
  • Itchy Skin/Rashes
  • Swollen Lymph Nodes


The precise cause of a person's blood cancer cannot be determined. Certain factors may increase an individual's risk of developing this cancer, according to research. Risk factors are characteristics that have been linked to an increased risk of cancer development. There are many different types of blood cancers, and although each has its own specific risk factors, there are a few that are common to all of them.

  • Radiation Exposure: Radiation exposure has the potential to cause blood cancer. Certain radiation wavelengths have the potential to harm DNA and cause cancer. The risk of blood cancer increases with increasing radiation exposure. The risk of developing blood cancer can be increased by radiation exposure from imaging tests and cancer-curing radiotherapy.
  • Family Background: Certain symptoms are brought on by hereditary illnesses. The chance of developing cancer is directly impacted by these syndromes. These include down syndrome, ataxia-telangiectasia, fanconi anaemia, Bloom syndrome, and a few others.
  • Chemical Exposure: The most common and lethal substance that can cause blood cancer is benzene. Blood cancer may be brought on by chemicals like formaldehyde and heavy manufacturing smoke. Humans come into contact with these substances through the air they breathe, and breathing in drunk air increases the risk of blood cancer.
  • Chronic Inflammation: The inflammatory process ends when the damage is repaired. Persistent infections are the source of chronic inflammation. Additional causes of inflammations include aberrant immune responses to healthy tissues or fat. Cancer and DNA damage have been related to chronic inflammation. Determining the type of inflammation and its origin are crucial steps towards treating it.

Other Risk Factors

  • Smoking: This is one of the main risk factors for blood cancer. Although it's widely believed that smoking only causes mouth or lung cancer, smoking is also one of the main causes of blood cancer. Smoking has the ability to seriously harm or disturb blood cells' DNA, which can lead to abnormal cell growth and function and, eventually, blood cancer.
  • Diet: Although over half of the world's population does not follow a healthy diet, some foods and drinks—such as processed meat, aerated drinks, refined sugar, diet food, etc.—have been connected to a higher risk of cancer.


The severity of the cancer is indicated by the term "stage." Determining the stage or course of blood cancer is the first step towards making an educated treatment decision, which is crucial for any individual receiving a cancer diagnosis. However, one of the most important factors in choosing the best course of treatment is understanding the stage of blood cancer. Most cancers are categorised into phases according to how big and dispersed the tumours are.

Blood cancer is distinct from other cancers in that it develops in the developing blood cells in the bone marrow, unlike other cancers. This allows for various staging of the disease. Thus, blood cell counts and the distribution of these cells in other organs like the liver and spleen are used to categorise leukaemia phases.


Blood cancer diagnosis can be made using the tests and techniques listed below:

  • Urine Examination : This test measures the proteins, blood cells, and other elements in your urine. The chemicals in your blood are often eliminated by your kidneys and end up in your urine.
  • Bone Marrow Examination : To ascertain whether a disease is attacking your bone marrow, your doctor may need to perform this procedure. Before they show up in your blood, some disorders first present in your body. Mostly likely, your doctor will take a small amount of bone marrow from your hip.
  • Imaging Tests : To find any malignant tumours in your body, your doctor may recommend imaging tests like MRIs, PET scans, CT scans, chest X-rays, etc. Your illness may be caused by these tumours.
  • Blood Tests : To determine the precise rate at which your cancer is progressing, your oncologist will perform a number of blood tests. That will enable them to give you a suitable treatment plan going forward.
  • Biopsy : Patients who are suspected of having blood cancer undergo a specific kind of biopsy. Your oncologist may recommend a lymph node biopsy because blood cancer directly impacts the lymphatic system.


The type and stage of the cancer, the patient's age, the organs the cancer has affected, and the patient's tolerance are all factors that go into determining the course of treatment for blood cancer.

The most important therapies for blood cancer are as follows:

  • Chemotherapy: In this method, the drugs are injected into a larger muscle or vein. Based on the treatment stage, they can be administered subcutaneously or orally. These drugs enter the bloodstream and travel to the cancer cells. After that, they stop the cancer cells from proliferating all over the body. This treatment becomes one of the most effective because these drugs target cancer cells that divide quickly. Chemotherapy is given in intervals. Following each stage of treatment, the patient is given a period of rest while taking medication. This is to help the patient manage any side effects from the treatment.
  • Targeted therapy : These medical interventions target the precise chemicals that promote cancer growth and metastasis. Targeting the genes, proteins, and blood vessels that support them is the main idea. Chemotherapy can be given in addition to or instead of this treatment. The primary options are as follows; these change based on the kind of blood cancer and the characteristics of the cancer cells.
  • Stem Cell Transplant : Stem cells are cells found in bone marrow that can differentiate into various blood cell types. The body needs more than just the removal of cancerous cells when blood cells get extremely sick and function poorly. It may therefore be necessary to undergo stem cell or bone marrow transplantation in addition to cancer-killing therapy.
  • Palliative Care: This type of care uses regular counselling and support medication to give the patient the tools and direction they need to live a better life.