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Prostate Cancer

Cancer Type

What is Prostate Cancer?

Every male in our species has a gland called a prostate. Seminal fluid production is the role of the prostate gland. The fluid's two main functions are to nourish and facilitate the movement of human sperm. When cancer starts in the gland cells of the prostate, it is called prostate cancer. The urethra, the tube that transports urine from the bladder, is surrounded by the prostate, which weighs about 30 grammes. Thus, it makes sense that the prostate gland is the natural source of prostate cancer. It occurs when a cluster of cells begins to divide erratically. It is among the most prevalent types of cancer that affect men. Depending on your current stage of progression, your course of treatment and recovery will.

Modern tools and technologies for cancer treatment enable our oncology team at Medica to employ some of the top oncologists and oncosurgeons. Comprehensive therapy, surgery, and post-surgery care are all provided to our patients at open and honest prices.


Prostate cancers that are adenocarcinomas are the most prevalent kind. Furthermore, this kind of prostate cancer affects a person approximately 95% of the time. The prostate gland cells give rise to adenocarcinomas. Glands cells produce prostate fluid. When this liquid comes into contact with sperm, semen is created. These cells are susceptible to the development of two types of cancer:

Adenocarcinoma Acinar

This is the kind that most people have. It begins in the prostate gland's lining gland cells.

Adenocarcinoma Ductal

This kind starts in the cells that encircle the ducts (or tubes) of the prostate gland. Compared to the other form, it is typically more aggressive. This is known to cause it to grow and spread more quickly.

Niche-Based Carcinoma

One man in every 100 is affected by small cell prostate cancer (about 1 percent). It starts in small, round neuroendocrine cells and is the most aggressive type of neuroendocrine cancer in the prostate.

A Squamous Cell Tumour

One kind of prostate cancer that grows quickly is called squamous cell carcinoma. It starts in the flat cells that cover the prostate glands.

Carcinoma of Transitional Cells

A type of prostate cancer called transitional cell carcinoma, sometimes referred to as urothelial cancer, can begin in the bladder or urethra and spread to the prostate, or it can begin in the prostate and travel from there to the urethra or bladder and back to the prostate.

Tumours Neuroendocrine

Neuroendocrine tumours known as carcinoids develop in nerve and gland cells that produce and release hormones into the bloodstream. These tumours do not produce PSA, or prostate-specific antigen.

Sarcoma of Soft Tissue

The supporting tissues are where this starts. Examples include fat, blood vessels, muscles, and nerves. These cancers in the prostate are incredibly uncommon. Less than 0.1 percent of all cases consist of them. In males, less than 1 in 1,000 develop prostate cancer.

After treatment, prostate cancer may return in the prostate or elsewhere in the body. Among them are the following types of cancer:

Recurrent prostate cancer is the term for prostate cancer that reappears after treatment. We can also refer to it as a local recurrence. The goal of prostate cancer treatment is to destroy cancerous cells, but some cells may escape detection. Metastatic prostate cancer is the term for prostate cancer that has progressed to other parts of the body. It's possible that these cancer cells entered the lymphatic or circulatory systems. A metastasis is a localised or distant recurrence of the primary prostate cancer.


When prostate cancer is first developing, its symptoms are typically undetected. The majority of these symptoms also differ for each person who is impacted.

The following are typical indicators of prostate cancer:

  • Haematuria, or blood in the urine
  • Loss of control over one's bladder
  • Regular urination, particularly at night
  • Discomfort when urinating
  • Burning feeling when urinating
  • Erotic dysfunction
  • Bloating
  • Back pain in the lower back
  • Below-the-waist numbness
  • Semen containing blood
  • Patients also experience fatigue, anaemia, lymphoedema, bowel problems, and other more severe symptoms when their prostate cancer has spread to other areas of their body.


Prostate cancer is a diagnosis that 1 in 8 men will face at some point in their lives. Being aware of its causes can make combating it more effective. Prostate cancer can result from a number of things, including:

  • Age: There's a risk for every man. Prostate cancer is a risk for people over 40.
  • Race/Ethnicity: Studies indicate that Asian residents of urbanised areas, like Hong Kong, Singapore, and India, are more likely to develop prostate cancer.
  • Genetic Mutation: Individuals may experience symptoms over time as a result of modifications to either the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene.
  • Chemical Exposure: Extended exposure to some chemicals can change your genes and make your cells behave strangely.

Variable Risk Elements

  • Inactivity: If you have a sedentary lifestyle with little exercise, you may be at risk for prostate cancer.
  • Diet: Eating a lot of dairy or red meats can exacerbate the symptoms of prostate cancer.
  • A genetic mutation known as Lynch syndrome can be inherited from birth. It may raise your risk of developing cancers, such as prostate cancer.
  • Smoking: Studies have indicated that smoking cigarettes may have an impact on your chances.


The clinical stages of prostate cancer are divided into the following categories:

  • Stage I: The tumour cannot be felt or seen during the DRE or imaging (such as a computed tomography (CT) scan or transrectal ultrasound). It might be found during surgery to treat another medical issue.
    • Stage I-A: During a surgical procedure to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), or the abnormal growth of benign prostate cells, the tumour is inadvertently found. Only five percent or less of the removed tissue has cancer.
    • Stage I-B: Unintentionally, the tumour is discovered during BPH surgery. Over 5% of the removed tissue has cancerous cells found in it.
    • Stage I-C: Due to an elevated PSA level, a needle biopsy was conducted, and during that procedure, the tumour was discovered.
  • Stage II:It seems that the prostate tumour is contained. Due to its size, the tumour may be felt by the doctor during the DRE. Imaging may be able to identify the cancer.
    • Stage II-A: The tumour has invaded half (or less) of one side of the prostate.
    • Stage II-B: The tumour has grown to more than half of one prostate side, but not the other.
    • Stage II-C: Both sides now have prostate cancer.
  • Stage III: The tumour is no longer contained inside the prostate gland. There's a chance that seminal vesicles are now affected.
    • Stage III-A: The seminal vesicles have not been affected by the tumour, despite its growth outside of the prostate.
    • Stage III-B: The seminal vesicles (seminal vesicles) have been affected by the malignancy.
  • Stage IV: The seminal vesicles surrounding the prostate are no longer the tumor's home. For example, the cancer may be spreading to the bladder, urethral sphincter (the muscle that controls urine), pelvic wall, or rectum.


Even the slightest symptoms should always be watched out for by every man. Men are generally encouraged to get regular checkups once they turn thirty. However, you should schedule a visit with a physician right away if you are exhibiting even slight indications of inflammation or prostate cancer.

Severe abdominal pain or a bloody discharge are signs that should prompt a cancer screening right away.

Prostate cancer risk can be decreased if you:

  • Opt for a nutritious diet rich in fruits and vegetables
  • Give priority to wholesome food over supplements
  • On most days of the week, work out
  • Sustain a healthy weight
  • Consult your physician about the heightened risk of prostate cancer


  • Our cancer care team will talk with you about your options for cancer treatment if you have been diagnosed with prostate cancer. It's important to balance the benefits of each treatment option with any possible risks or side effects.
  • Medical Procedure: In order to treat cancer, a patient may combine other forms of treatment with treatment procedures such as radiation therapy, brachytherapy, teletherapy, and particle therapy.
  • Our cancer care team will talk with you about your options for cancer treatment if you have been diagnosed with prostate cancer. It's important to balance the benefits of each treatment option with any possible risks or side effects.
  • Medical Procedure: In order to treat cancer, a patient may combine other forms of treatment with treatment procedures such as radiation therapy, brachytherapy, teletherapy, and particle therapy.
  • Oncosurgeons employ a variety of surgical techniques, including laparoscopic radical prostatectomy, radiosurgery, prostatectomy, radical retropubic prostatectomy, and laparoscopic surgery.
  • Medication: A medical oncologist, in collaboration with other specialists, determines the course and treatment for your medications. This includes hormone associated therapy, bone health, chemotherapy, hormone, and urinary retention medication.