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Kidney Cancer

Cancer Type

What is Kidney Cancer?

One kind of cancer that begins in the kidneys and spreads to other parts of the body is kidney cancer. The two kidney-shaped organs in your body are roughly the size of a fist each. One kidney is located on each side of your spine, behind your abdominal organs.

In adults, renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of kidney cancer. Kidney cancer can also occur in other, less common forms. Kidney cancer of the wilms' tumour variety is more common in young children.

It seems that kidney cancer is becoming more prevalent. Kidney cancer ranks among the top ten cancers in both men and women. The lifetime risk of kidney cancer for men is generally 1 in 46 (2.02 percent). The lifetime risk is approximately 1 in 80 for women.

Asarfi oncology department has over 30 years of combined clinical excellence, which allows them to specialise in offering top-notch cancer treatment. With the assistance of a group of exceptionally talented reconstructive surgeons and the most recent advancements in cancer treatment technologies, our oncologists and onco-surgeons treat every patient, adult and paediatric, comprehensively and using a multidisciplinary approach to treat all kinds and forms of cancer.


There are several types of kidney cancer, including renal cell carcinomas, renal sarcomas, Wilms tumours, and transitional cell carcinomas. You can work closely with your healthcare team to determine the type of kidney cancer you have and to select a treatment plan that suits both your preferences and your cancer:

Cancer of the Renal Cells

Renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of kidney cancer. The lining of the tubules, which are comparatively tiny kidney tubes, is where cancerous cells typically develop. Over time, a bulk of these cells could develop and result in a blockage. Cancer may appear in one kidney or both.

Wilms Tumour

Children are more likely than adults to develop wilms tumours, and their course of treatment differs. Approximately 1% of kidney cancers are wilms tumours. Compared to other forms of kidney cancer, this type of tumour has a higher chance of being successfully treated with radiation therapy and chemotherapy when combined with surgery. Consequently, a novel approach to treatment has surfaced.

Uroepithelial Cancer

This kind of cancer is also known as transitional cell carcinoma. It accounts for five to ten percent of kidney cancer cases that are detected in adults. The renal pelvis, the area of the kidney where urine gathers before entering the bladder, is where urothelial carcinoma first appears. This type of kidney cancer is treated similarly to bladder cancer because both cancers originate in the same cells lining the renal pelvis and bladder.

Sarcoma A rare kind of sarcoma is kidney sarcoma. This kind of cancer develops in the surrounding fat, the capsule, the thin layer of connective tissue that envelops the kidney, or the soft tissue of the kidney. Renal sarcoma is commonly treated with surgery. On the other hand, sarcoma usually spreads to other parts of the body or returns in the kidney area. Chemotherapy or additional surgery might be required after the initial procedure.

Cancer of the Salivary Gland

The salivary glands are impacted by this cancer. The saliva produced in the mouth by the salivary gland aids in the dissolution of food. Additionally, the upper portion of the digestive tract contains salivary glands.

Cervical Squamous Cell Cancer

These are the thin, flat cells that line the respiratory tract, the surface of the skin, and the inside of bodily organs. From its original locations, cancer spreads to the collarbone and lymph nodes in the neck.

Carcinoma of the Soft Tissue

This particular type of cancer arises when malignant cells are discovered in the soft tissues of the head and neck, including muscles, connective tissue, blood and lymph vessels, joints, and fat.


The organ impacted and the disease's stage determine the symptoms of head and neck cancer. But a few of the signs and symptoms are:

  • Oral Cavity: It is possible to develop red and white patches on the tongue, gums, and inner lining of the mouth. Unusual gum bleeding and oral pain can both happen occasionally.
  • Throat: Pain in the neck and throat that takes a long time to go away, difficulty swallowing. Hearing loss and ringing in the ears are possible side effects.
  • Voicebox: The individual might have trouble speaking. He might also be suffering from ear pain.
  • Nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses: When sinuses are obstructed, a persistent sinus infection develops that is resistant to antibiotic therapy. There may be frequent headaches and nasal bleeding.
  • Salivary Gland: Swelling around the jawbone and under the chin is another possible symptom for these patients.


It is unknown exactly why these cancers develop. But researchers think that excessive alcohol and tobacco use may contribute to head and neck cancer, especially when the cancer affects the larynx, oral cavity, oropharynx, or hypopharynx. Furthermore, head and neck cancer is also brought on by the human papillomavirus.

Extra Risk Elements

The following are head and neck cancer risk factors :

  • Pan (Betel Nut): This has the potential to cause cancer of the mouth.
  • Pan Eating Preserved or Salted Food : Nasopharyngeal cancer may result from consuming a variety of preserved and salted foods.
  • Pan Bad Oral Health : Oral cancer can be brought on by both poor dental and oral health.
  • Occupational Exposure : Frequent wood dust exposure increases the risk of larynx cancer.
  • Radiation Exposure : Salivary gland cancer can result from radiation exposure to the head and neck.
  • Epstein Barr Infection : Nasopharyngeal and salivary gland cancer may be caused by viral exposure, such as Epstein Barr infection
  • Family History : If there is a history of head and neck cancer in the family, the individual may be at an increased risk of acquiring the disease.


The stages of head and neck cancer are as follows:

  • Stage 0: Also referred to as carcinoma in situ, this is the lowest point on the scale. It describes abnormal cells that have the potential to develop into cancer in the lining of the affected area.
  • Stage I: A very early stage of cancer is referred to as "stage I." The tumor's diameter is a mere two millimetres. There are currently no lymph nodes affected by the cancer.
  • Stage II: A tumour is considered to be in Stage II if its diameter is more than two centimetres but not more than four. Stage II cancer has not spread to the lymph nodes.
  • Stage III: Tumours larger than four centimetres in diameter or those that have metastasized to a lymph node on the same side of the neck and have a diameter of less than three centimetres are classified as stage III head and neck cancer.
  • Stage VI: Stage IV is the most advanced stage of cancer of the head and neck. The tumour may be small or large, but it has spread to the following regions.


The prognosis for head and neck cancer is favourable if detected early. Your doctor may conduct a physical examination and order a diagnostic test while diagnosing you.

  • Physical Examination : During a physical examination, the doctor may assess nasal and oral health. Additionally, he might search for lumps on the lips, gums, and neck.
  • Diagnostic Test: If the physician believes there may be a head or neck cancer, he may also recommend the following tests:
    • endoscopy to assess the throat, nasal cavity, and voice box.
    • urine test Urine test
    • X-ray of the head and neck
    • CT scans
    • MRI
    • Autopsy
    • Urine examination
    • HPV examination


The following circumstances determine how head and neck cancer is treated:

  • Where the cancer is located.
  • Cancer stage
  • Patient's age and general state of health.
  • When treating cancer, the following procedures are carried out :
    • Surgery: The doctor removes the malignant tumour during this procedure. The physician might also remove the lymph nodes if cancer has spread to them.
    • Radiation: The physician employs high-energy radiation to destroy the malignant cells. Radiation therapy, however, carries the potential to harm other tissues.
    • Chemotherapy: By preventing the cancerous cells from growing and proliferating, a number of medications destroy them. These medications are given by the doctor as part of the chemotherapy treatment. There are multiple cycles of medication administration during chemotherapy.
    • Target therapy: The medications attack the genes, proteins, and other essential functions of cancer cells.
    • Immunotherapy: By strengthening the immune system, a doctor can aid in the fight against cancer.