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Skin Cancer

Cancer Type

What is Skin Cancer?

We are taught at a very young age the value of "skin." It really does help us much more than we give it credit for. With a surface area of about 20 square feet, the skin is the largest organ in the body and acts as a barrier to protect internal organs as well as a receptor for external stimuli. There are three layers to our skin:

  • Skin
  • The hypodermis
  • Furthermore, there are three primary cell types in our skin
  • Squamous cells
  • base cells
  • Melanocytes

Primary cancers are defined as those that originate in a specific tissue or organ. There are approximately 200 different types of cancer depending on these factors. The process of cancer spreading from one tissue to another is referred to as "metastasis". Secondary or metastatic cancers are cancers that have spread from their primary sites, or the places from which they originally originated. Tumours that originate in skin cells are known as skin cancers.

Asarfi oncology department excels at offering top-notch cancer treatment because of their combined more than 30 years of clinical excellence. Our oncologists and onco-surgeons treat all types and forms of cancer using a multidisciplinary approach. They are assisted by a team of highly skilled reconstructive surgeons who treat all of our patients, both adults and children, with extensive care, as well as by the newest cancer treatment technologies.


Although there are many varieties of skin cancer, these three are the most common types: They are as follows:

Intracellular Carcinoma

Skin cancer with basal cell carcinoma is the most common kind. This type of skin cancer is more common in fair people than in dark people. The most common cause of BCC (basal cell cancer) is years of indoor tanning and sun exposure. Usually, they manifest as a reddish-colored skin patch on the neck, head, or arms, or as a bulge resembling a pearl.

A Squamous Cell Tumour

After basal cell carcinoma, SCC is the most prevalent kind of cancer. Similar to other forms of skin cancer, men are more likely to get it, and white men are more likely to get it than blank men. The cancer manifests as a red, hard bump, scaly patch, or recurrently healing sore. Due to their frequent sun exposure, the rim of the ear, face, neck, arms, chest, and back are the most common places to see these. Skin deformity and damage are caused by SCC. These cancers need to be identified and treated as soon as possible in order to stop them from spreading.


The most severe kind of skin cancer manifests as a black spot or mole on the skin. These tumours need to be identified and treated as soon as possible after they are found in order to reduce their harmful effects.

Sarcoma Kaposi

This cancer is brought on by the Kaposi Sarcoma Herpesvirus (KSHV), which targets blood and lymph vessel cells. It is more common for patients living with HIV to develop this kind of skin cancer. KS, which manifests as skin tumours or patches that are red, purple, or brown, is the cause of swelling. If Kaposi's sarcoma has spread to other parts of the body, it may be fatal.

Skin-Tissue T-Cell Lymphoma

CTCL affects the skin when the T-cell lymphocyte develops cancer. Males and females over 50 are more likely to experience it. Chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapies are used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (insert 6.14).

Acromedale Gland Cancer

This particular cancer affects the oil glands. This kind of skin cancer is rare and extremely dangerous. The likelihood of an SGC diagnosis is higher in women over 70. Although it can affect any part of the body, it most frequently affects the eye.

Merkel cell cancer

A very uncommon kind of cancer that affects the Merkel cells is called Merkel cell cancer. Regular exposure to light causes these cells to proliferate abnormally, which can result in cancer. The propensity of Merkel cell carcinoma to spread is strong. It often spreads to distant organs and lymph nodes in the early stages. As the cancer spreads, firm, painless lumps that are violet or red in colour and elevated or dome-shaped develop quickly.

Dermatofibrosarcoma A comparatively uncommon skin cancer tumour known as protuberans DFSP arises from the overproduction of platelet-derived growth factor, which is brought on by genetic abnormalities. It affects the skin's dermis as well as the body's limbs and trunk.


The type and stage of skin cancer determine the symptoms. Patients should be aware of the warning signs of skin cancer, especially if they are at a high risk of developing the disease. Among the signs of skin cancer are:

  • The expansion of a persistent mole
  • Modifications to the mole's size and colour
  • The lesions are burning and itching
  • Bruises with irregular margins
  • The spot's unusual hue, such as red, pink, white, or black


Our DNA contains information regarding cell division. The cause of skin cancer is a genetic mutation. These mutations lead to uncontrollably dividing cells and harm the information contained in DNA. The precise cause of these mutations is still unknown, though. Different types of cancer are caused by these DNA mutations in melanocytes, squamous cells, and basal cells. The tumor's location affects how skin cancer is treated.

Extra Risk Elements

The risk of skin cancer is increased by multiple factors. Among them are:

  • Excessive Sun Exposure: People who spend a lot of time in the sun are more likely to get skin cancer. Individuals who have sun-tanned skin are also more vulnerable. The reason for this is that sun exposure triggers an inflammatory reaction that leads to tanning.
  • Family History: The likelihood of developing skin cancer is significantly higher in those with a family history of the disease. Furthermore, the chance of a recurrence is higher in those who have previously had skin cancer.
  • Hazardous Radiation: Skin cancer can develop in people who are exposed to harmful radiations, such as those used in skin treatment procedures. Arsenic exposure and other toxic substance exposure raise the risk of skin cancer.
  • Weak Immune System: Skin cancer is more likely to strike those who have weakened immune systems. These individuals include those with AIDS and those taking immune-suppressive medications.
  • Precancerous Lesions: Cancer may develop from the precancerous lesions. See your physician if you notice any abrupt changes in the characteristics of your skin.
  • Fair Skin: Regardless of skin tone, anyone can develop skin cancer. On the other hand, skin with less melanin provides less protection against UV radiation. Compared to someone with darker skin, you have a significantly higher chance of developing skin cancer if you have red or blonde hair, light-colored eyes, freckles, or sunburn easily.


The stages of skin cancer vary depending on the type of disease you have.This means that the symptoms and progression times of various forms of skin cancer vary. For skin cancers other than melanoma, such as squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma, the procedure is different. Your doctor should only be able to determine the stage of your skin cancer after making the appropriate diagnosis and evaluations. Before referring you to a skilled oncologist or oncosurgeon, your dermatologist or general practitioner will conduct standard tests and ask you pertinent questions.


The physician diagnoses skin cancer using the following instruments:

  • Physical examination: To ascertain whether cancer is present, the physician will assess the skin changes. To confirm that cancer is present, the doctor might suggest doing additional testing.
  • Biopsy: The patient may be recommended to have a biopsy by the physician. After obtaining the tissue sample, the physician sends it to the lab for analysis. The presence and type of skin cancer can be ascertained with the use of a biopsy.


The following options for treating skin cancer are available:

  • Surgery: The cancerous portion is removed by the physician during the excisional procedure. During this procedure, the physician also removes the margin of healthy tissue.
  • The doctor treats basal cell and thin squamous cell cancer with cryotherapy. During this procedure, the doctor cuts away the layer of cancerous cells with a circular blade. The physician may also use liquid nitrogen in certain situations to freeze.
  • The physician performs Mohs Surgery when managing skin cancer proves to be difficult. The doctor can preserve as many healthy tissues as possible with this process. During this surgery, the surgeon removes cancerous tissues layer by layer, examining each layer under a microscope.
  • Chemotherapy: The physician may also recommend medications to eradicate cancerous cells. In the event that the cancer is localised to the skin, the physician might recommend topical creams and lotions. When the disease is at an advanced stage, the doctor administers systemic chemotherapy.
  • Radiotherapy: High-energy radiation is used in radiation therapy to destroy cancerous cells. Chemotherapy or surgery can be combined with radiation therapy.
  • During phototherapy, the patients are given medications that increase the cancerous cells' sensitivity to light. After that, a laser is used to target and kill the cancerous cells.