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Bone Cancer

Cancer Type

What is Bone Cancer?

Bone cancer is a kind of cancer that starts when a person's bone cells grow out of control. Bone cancer is a comparatively uncommon illness. Bone tumours are usually benign. They are not capable of spreading to the body's other organs. But it can weaken your bones, which can lead to fractures. The pelvic area and the long bones of the arms and legs are the most commonly affected by bone cancer. Primary bone cancer is a type of cancer that starts in the tissues of the bones. Secondary or metastatic bone cancers are the result of primary bone cancer that spreads to other parts of the body.

Modern tools and technologies for cancer treatment enable our oncology team at Medica to employ some of the top oncologists and oncosurgeons. Comprehensive therapy, surgery, and post-surgery care are all provided to our patients at open and honest prices.


Primary bone cancers and secondary bone cancers are the two types of bone cancer:

Either benign or malignant bone tumours are present. Benign denotes that these are typically not too harmful and do not have the potential to spread. Malignant or cancerous tumours, on the other hand, are more likely to grow and spread from their original location.

Osteosarcoma: This is a cancer of the bone-forming cells. Osteoblasts are the name given to these cells. It is a prevalent form of bone cancer in kids and teenagers (10–19 years old).

Chondrosarcoma: This particular cancer usually affects adults. It begins to grow in the joint-lining connective tissue and spreads to the bone. It is said that the connective tissue is cartilage.

Ewing's Sarcoma: This type of cancer affects the thigh bone, chest wall, and pelvic area. The soft tissues that support the bones may also be impacted by this cancer. Tissues such as muscle, fat, or blood vessels serve as supports. Teens between the ages of 10 and 19 are most affected. It is the second most prevalent and uncommon kind of bone cancer in children.

Chordoma: The spine is where chordoma forms. In adults, that impacts the base of the skull and spine.

Adults with bone cancer are not uncommon. Although it can spread to other body parts, it primarily affects other bones. Hypercalcemia, fractures, and pain can all result from secondary bone cancers. A person's chance of developing secondary bone cancer is increased if they have breast or prostate cancer.


The symptoms of bone cancer are as follows:

  • Bone pain, particularly at night
  • Fragile bones
  • Raise the chance of fractures
  • Tenderness and swelling in the cancer-affected area
  • Fatigue
  • Loss of Weight
  • Mobility challenges
  • High Temperature
  • Pain worsens when one is active
  • Perspiration


Bone cancer's primary cause is still unknown. Few cases of bone cancer, it is reported, have been connected to high radiation exposure and a family history of the disease. Changes in a cell's DNA can result in the development of cancer. Cancer is sometimes caused by mutations in the gene that regulates cell division.

Cancer can result from gene mutations that produce oncogenes or inhibit tumour suppressor cells.

Extra Risk Elements

  • A given disease has a higher chance of developing when risk factors are present. For instance, smoking is one modifiable or preventable cancer risk factor. However, some risk factors, like age or heredity, are unchangeable.
  • Cancer is not guaranteed to occur even if you have risk factors. Individuals who meet one or more risk factors are immune to the illness. On the other hand, there may or may not be established risk factors for cancer patients.

The following are some risk factors for bone cancer that raise the likelihood of developing the disease:

  • Genetic disorders passed down through the generations are known as heredity. Individuals with a family history of these cancers are more vulnerable. It is currently unknown which genes are connected to the illness.
  • Previous Cancer Treatment: An increased risk of developing the disease is associated with earlier chemotherapy treatment. Early disease onset is more common in those receiving high radiation treatment.
  • The majority of those affected by Paget Disease are over 50. It is a kind of bone disease. Due to the abnormal bone tissue formation brought on by this condition, bones become weak, brittle, and thick, making them more prone to breaking. Although it is not a form of cancer, the illness may cause osteosarcoma.
  • Pre-Existing Bone Tumours: Genetic disorders can result in bone or cartilage tumours. Bone cancer risk is increased by these tumours.
  • Bone Marrow Transplantation: The development of cancers like osteosarcoma has been connected to bone marrow transplantation.


Biopsies and imaging studies are used in the diagnosis of bone cancer:

  • Physical Examination: The physician can assess the patient's health in-depth. Additionally, the doctor inquires about the patient's symptoms, including pain, exhaustion, and mobility issues. The doctor may request additional testing from the patient if he is persuaded that the symptoms could point to a serious illness.
  • Imaging Tests: Imaging tests assist in identifying the location, size, and potential for tumour spread. Among the various imaging test kinds are:
    • bone scan
    • Computerised Tomography, or CT scan
    • Magnetic Resonance Imaging, or MRI
    • Positron emission tomography, or PET
    • X-ray
    • Bone radionuclide scan
    • Biopsy: A biopsy is a useful tool for determining the tumor's stage as well as its potential for growth and dissemination.


Surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, cryosurgery, and targeted therapy are all used to treat bone cancer:

  • Operation: The goal of the surgical procedures is to completely remove the tumour cell from the bone tissues. In order to replace the lost bone, it also helps to transfer bone from other parts of the body.
  • chemotherapy: To eradicate the cancer cells, the physician administers anti-cancer medications orally or intravenously. In addition to surgery, the doctor may also administer chemotherapy.
  • Radiation Treatment: A high-energy beam, like X-rays, is used in the therapy to kill cancer cells. Usually, radiation therapy is administered prior to surgery. It facilitates tumour shrinkage and facilitates removal. Usually, chemotherapy or surgery are combined with it.
  • Cryoprotection: The method by which the surgery was averted. It is the process of using liquid nitrogen to freeze cancer cells. It consequently destroys the cancer cells.
  • Personalised treatment: Drugs that are specifically designed are used in therapy. These medications specifically interact with the cancer-causing molecule..
  • Personalised treatment: Drugs that are specifically designed are used in therapy. These medications specifically interact with the cancer-causing molecule.